Equity & appraisals
by Chad Nance and Jordan Green
New property tax valuations came like a blow to the solar plexus for many longtime homeowners in historically African-American neighborhoods arrayed along the eastern side of Winston-Salem.
Stunned homeowners opened notices from the Forsyth County Tax Administration in February to discover that more than 50 percent and sometimes as much as 70 percent of their home values had been wiped out. The markdowns hit the east-side neighborhoods that face the downtown skyline from across the trough cut by US Highway 52, well-tended black suburbs that throng Carver School Road, and the Waughtown Street corridor undergoing rapid ethnic succession with the rise of Latino homeownership and commerce alikeMohommed Herb, who lives with his 106-year-old mother in a 1926 frame house equipped with a generously apportioned front porch on East 1st Street, watched his home value get slashed from $40,400 to $18,100. He also owns and operates Herb’s Bargains, a two-story 1920s vintage store flanked by a palm tree that would not look out of place in the Warehouse District of New Orleans. Herb can often be found sitting out front, keeping a close eye on what transpires in the neighborhood.
While foreclosures coupled with a dearth of true arms-length sales have battered the local residential market, leaving values at rock bottom, the NC Department of Transportation has re-routed traffic so that nearby Martin Luther King Jr. Drive can accommodate increased volume during the temporary closure of Business 40. Meanwhile, the constant hum of heavy machinery at the nascent Wake Forest Innovation Quarter across 52 prompts city leaders to predict that future tech workers will be looking for upscale, urban housing in the adjacent neighborhoods to the east. “This area here is close to downtown and in order for them to expand you got to move somewhere right?” Herb said. “They not gonna go west because the Moravian people are there and they done already tried them and they are not going to succeed in moving them around from their old stuff. So who — what’s left? Ain’t nothing left but the black people.” Yolanda Hairston, who lives off Carver School Road, expressed the same foreboding about the onset of gentrification during a community meeting at First Calvary Baptist Church in March. “When a whole community gets devalued by 60 percent,” she said, “that makes it real easy pickings for someone to come in and buy the whole thing up.” Two generations of black Winston-Salem residents financed houses through good jobs at RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co. that came with benefits and vacation time. Others amassed equity and invested in spacious 1960s and ’70s ranch houses with impeccable landscaping through distinguished careers in education at Winston-Salem State University and Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools, or as small business owners on Liberty Street. When the Civil Rights Movement battered down employment barriers in the 1960s, still others gained entry to civil service jobs that provided middle-class security. They paid for college educations for their children, many of whom chose not to return to Winston-Salem to launch careers and start families, choosing more vibrant cities such as Atlanta or Washington DC instead.
American Dreams interrupted
Homeownership has long been a cornerstone of the American Dream, and its economic benefits created financial stability for generations of black Winston-Salem residents who came of age after World War II. The 2013 tax revaluation threatened to shake many African-American seniors violently awake from their American Dreams, leaving them to face the grim realities of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression in a city that has been undergoing a seismic shift in population, demographics and economic base for three decades now. Black, middle- and upper-class neighborhoods that were built on the strong backs of Winston-Salem’s manufacturing behemoths now find themselves devalued with the maturing of a local economy based on healthcare and services, along with other technology-based industries from global IT to 3-D printing. Setting aside historical realities of race relations and the legacy of financial redlining that has undermined investment in many of these same neighborhoods that suffered deep devaluations, focusing on the process by which the 2013 assessments were undertaken is a critical exercise. Separating raw data from fears, assumptions and conspiracy theories is the only way to scrape down to anything resembling the truth of the matter. “We’re going to have to come up with some way to let these people know that this is not a systematic thing on the part of the county or anybody else to take the value out of their property, that these things happen because of economic conditions,” Chairman Richard N. Davis told his fellow members on the Forsyth County Board of Equalization and Review. “But what we’ve got to make sure of, is that the value on those homes was not reduced because of sales that should not have been included in the comps.” The only black member of the board, Davis is a former Winston-Salem Board of Aldermen member with extensive experience in banking and real estate. It all boils down to what the tax administration deems a qualified sale and a housing market that virtually ground to a halt in some parts of Winston-Salem in late 2008. Board member William V. White likened working with the historically low number of sales during the last four-year cycle to flying an airplane at cruising altitude seconds after an epic flameout.
“In aviation there is a concept called ‘slope line’ to where when you slow the air speed down to the point where the controls get kind of dysfunctional and mushy,” he said. “And it sort of likens to a valuation problem with no sales. I think we are the victim of general economic conditions and few sales.” With only 14,000 sales to work with — a fraction of previous cycles — the tax office found itself challenged in a way it had never been before. The search for qualified sales to create lists of comparable transactions to gauge the value of properties that have not sold becomes a tough job that falls somewhere between being a detective, real estate lawyer and Moneyball statistician.
Some errors, appraisals below sales
YES! Weekly and Camel City Dispatch combed through residential property tax records and deeds recording sales for about 750 sales that the tax administration judged to be qualified for extrapolating values of non-sold properties. The joint investigation focused on about 50 neighborhoods with upwards of 60 percent non-white residents, which tended to reflect the most severe drops in value. The investigation uncovered nine transactions that appear to have been either incorrectly included in the sales comps used by the tax administration to set values for neighborhoods or incorrectly excluded. Tax Assessor John Burgiss and his staff confirmed five of the errors and pledged to correct them. The errors occurred in neighborhoods defined by the tax administration as Cameron Park, Anderleigh, Waughtown Five, Green Park/Carlton Bluff and Liberty Heights. Staff contends that “none of the few sales corrections made would have a material effect on the neighborhood revaluation values.” In a sixth case, Burgiss acknowledged that the tax office incorrectly qualified a sale in Slater Park in which a property was purchased from the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp., a lending institution under federal conservatorship that is more commonly known as Freddie Mac. The joint investigation by YES! Weekly and Camel City Dispatch confirmed through an analysis of sales values that the transaction was not used to set values in the neighborhood. The investigation also uncovered a startling correlation in more than a dozen other neighborhoods affected by severe drops in value between small sales samples — sometimes as few as two or three —’and average tax valuations that fell significantly below sale amounts. They ranged from 10 percent below in Vantage View to 28 percent below in Morningside Manor, with Stone Terrace, Carver Glen, Oak Crest, Glenn Oaks, Slater Park, Bowen Park, Eastwood Estates, Liberia, Carver Lake, Tollgate, Cox Homes and Oak Hill falling in between. Meanwhile, in Castleshire there were exactly zero sales from 2009 to 2012, giving the assessor permission to use their best judgment in selecting sales from outside the neighborhood to establish a comp. Burgiss explained the discrepancy as a function of the individual assessors on staff tracking the market in each neighborhood. In many cases, he said, the market fell in 2012 and 2011 — the two years the tax administration relied on to find comparable values —’so that higher values in early 2011 would be trimmed to make them consistent with lower values closer to Jan. 1, 2013 — the point in time the valuation is supposed to benchmark.
To comprehend how assessed home values in one neighborhood such as Monticello Park can crater 70 percent and the assessed value of a house of the same vintage, model and quality across town can drop only 5 or 10 percent, it helps to understand exactly how the 13 appraisers in the real estate division at Forsyth County Tax Administration do their jobs. “There are some unique things about the 2013 appraisal,” Burgiss said in a meeting with the Ministers Conference of Winston-Salem and Vicinity in March. Burgiss said sales ground to a halt when the Great Recession hit most of America squarely between the eyebrows and set off a cascading collapse of the real estate market that — already inflated — began hemorrhaging values at historical levels. Major lenders like Freddie and Fannie saw foreclosures come so hard and fast that the paperwork clogged the system and some folks simply locked their doors behind them and walked away. “It created an environment that was difficult to appraise in,” Burgiss said. Assessors use three major approach to conduct appraisals: cost, market and income. The Forsyth County Tax Administration uses what’s called a hybrid cost-market approach, which starts with cost and then massages the numbers until they conform to an understanding of the market. How the market is determined by the assessors on staff at tax administration is determined by which sales they qualify for inclusion in the comps. Hang tight: More on that later. First, assessors figure out what it would cost to replace the house if the entire structure were to burn tomorrow. This is done by working up a square-footage price based on information provided by contractors and building-supply distributors. The information is compiled in a document known in the trade as a “means book” that provides assessors with average costs for items such as extra bathrooms, granite countertops and masonry fireplaces, not to mention the difference between a half- and full-bath. The data creates what is called a “Schedule of Values.” The “Schedule of Values” is then approved by elected members of the Forsyth County Commission. Assessors use those numbers to “plug in” values for the house they are assessing so that each home is uniquely appraised. After figuring out the replacement cost, the assessor then has to take into account the condition of the home in question. How old is it? How well has it been maintained? Does it have any damage, such as a tree growing out of a drained swimming pool? Each home is given a quality grade based on materials, workmanship, design and overall appearance. “This is a judgment call,” Burgiss said. There are nine residential appraisers for Forsyth County, each with about 20,000 properties to handle over the course of the four-year appraisal cycle. “At the end of the day there is a lot of subjectivity in an appraisal,” Burgiss told the Ministers Conference. “At the end of the day it is an opinion. An estimate.” The next step for appraisers is to establish a value for the land that the home is built on. This is often accomplished by noting the price of raw, undeveloped land in qualified, arms-length market transactions.
The market rules
But all the accuracy of all the factors added up in the cost estimate — the number of bathrooms, the use of masonry versus wood on the exterior, marble countertops — is more or less a moot point if the cost value doesn’t align with the market value determined by the sales the assessor has observed in the neighborhood. The market element has one major component: the qualified sale. A qualified sale is most easily defined by what it is not. The International Association of Assessing Officers and the NC Department of Revenue concur that a qualified sale is not one involving a lending institution, governmental agency or public utility. A qualified sale is not a sale involving a church or school. Sales involving family members or business partners are excluded. Same goes for sales in which someone is giving up a fractional interest in a property. There are many reasons why such sales aren’t considered actual market transactions between arms-length parties with neither being under duress to sell or buy. A bank often has an interest in unloading a foreclosed property as quickly as possible to avoid incurring maintenance and marketing costs, and is essentially cutting its losses on a bad loan. And as the International Association of Assessing Officers notes, sales to government agencies typically involve an element of compulsion and occur at higher prices than usual. Sales to churches often involve an element of philanthropy and involve lower prices than usual. Sales between family members also tend to be below market. On other reasons for disqualifying sales, there is little consensus. Professional appraisers who spoke on background for this story expressed varying understandings of what types of sales should be disqualified, and often suggested that the specific circumstances of particular sales might override the guidelines. Representatives of the NC Department of Revenue and the UNC School of Government declined to review findings in this investigation. David Baker, director of the local government division at the department of revenue, explained, “A county can use the department’s [code] edit sheet as a guide to building their sales file for use during their reappraisal, but there will be sales that they have additional information about which as an appraiser will cause them to either approve or not approve the sale as an arms-length transaction. “We cannot substitute our appraisal judgment for the county’s judgment,” he added.
In some cases, the local tax administration — and the state agency — part ways with the professional association. The Forsyth County Tax Administration counted a March 27, 2012 transaction in which the Winston-Salem Rescue Mission sold a house on Bryson Street in the Easton neighborhood to David Gonzalez. Formerly valued at $37,800, the property was sold to Gonzalez for $12,000. The sale represented the most severe drop in value among the eight properties in the sales file prepared by the tax administration for the neighborhood. The International Association of Assessing Officers recommends excluding sales involving charitable institutions; the NC Department of Revenue does not. The professional association advises that “a sale by such an organization can involve a nominal consideration or restrictive covenants.” Confronted with the sale, Burgiss said, “We like the IAAO and we’re all members,” adding that the tax administration is subject to state law and consequently guidance from the NC Department of Revenue trumps the recommendations of the professional association. The association also frowns on the use of sales that are recorded on non-traditional deeds, noting in a recent document that “such sales in which title is in doubt tend to be below market value,” citing as examples so-called “quit claims” and “trustees deeds.” The state code sheet relied upon by the tax administration also calls for the exclusion of “non-general warranty deeds.” The tax administration qualified a sale involving a transaction recorded on a “quit claim” deed from an entity recorded as GC Hudson Defined Benefit Plan to Arlene M. Smith on Marne Street in the Waughtown neighborhood on Oct. 11, 2011 for $6,000. The price fetched for the property was among the two lowest in the sample of seven and the sale demonstrated the second most severe drop in values. Mike Pollock, appraisal manager for the Forsyth County Tax Administration, said he contacted the NC Department of Revenue and confirmed that quit claim deeds should not be automatically disqualified, and that the department has eliminated the code for exclusion of transactions involving “non-general warranty deeds.” The International Association of Assessing Officers also recommends the exclusion of sales settling an estate. Such sales were used liberally in building sales files in the 2013 reappraisal, particularly in depressed neighborhoods where there were a dearth of otherwise qualified sales. Richard N. Davis, the chairman of the board of equalization, indicated in a public remark that he shares the professional association’s stance on estate sales. “The heirs didn’t put any money into the purchase of the house, so everything they get is gravy,” Davis said during a meeting of the board last month. “And some people want money. And if it’s a $150,000 house, they get an offer for $65,000 or $75,000 and they say, ‘Let’s sell.’ In a case where it’s multiple heirs, you can’t say majority wins. Everyone has to agree. They put pressure on the one who is holding out, and say, ‘We need the money.’ So I don’t personally think an estate sale should be an indication of a market-value sale.” Burgiss interjected that the tax administration acted in accordance with the state law governing tax appraisals. Davis later said in an interview that he thoroughly researched the statute and had to conclude there is no statutory reason to disqualify estate sales. With the sales lists established for each neighborhood, the assessor runs sales ratios, which essentially compare sales prices with 2009 valuations. How much or little the median sales ratio for a given neighborhood conforms to the ideal of 1.00 — or 100 percent —’determines the extent to which values will be adjusted.
Bending to the market’s will
The math is somewhat advanced, but not impossible to grasp. In Waughtown Five, for example, the tax administration logged 20 qualified sales, including a July 19, 2012 sale from Goldfish LLC to Ernest Kelly and his wife Allyson Kelly in which Allyson Kelly signed over the deed to property on Sunshine Avenue as a member of Goldfish LLC. Each transaction received a sales ratio — again, by dividing the 2009 valuation by the sales price. In Waughtown Five, 20 sales resulted in ratios ranging from 0.97 to 4.63, with the faulty sale involving the couple acting as both seller and buyer registering at 3.23. The tax administration took the median of the sample, which in this case was an average of the two middle values, 2.05 and 1.99. Accordingly, the median sales ratio was set at 2.02. The tax administration’s goal is to get properties as close to 1.00, or 100 percent, as possible. In the case of Waughtown Five, the 2009 sales ratio deviated from 1.00 by 1.02. Accordingly, by dividing 1.02 by 2.02, one arrives at a percentage of 50.5, which is the amount that must be removed to get to 1.00. Confirming the formula, a random sample of nine properties that did not sell during the past reappraisal cycle showed a median decline in values of 50.6 percent. Removing the faulty sale on Sunshine Avenue results in a new median sales ratio of 1.99. Dividing 0.99 by 1.99 provides the result 0.497, or 49.7 percent — the median reduction in values that actually should have been applied to the neighborhood. Remember that the tax administration starts with a cost approach, but cost must ultimately bend to the will of the market. Once the appraiser determines the cost of replacing the home, a percentage is applied to represent physical depreciation, which is deducted from the total. A second percentage is applied to represent a mysterious-sounding factor known as “economic/functional obsolescence,” which is further deducted. Winston-Salem Councilman Robert Clark neatly illustrated the concept of real-estate obsolescence in remarks last month about one of the city’s most noted properties, Lawrence Joel Veterans Memorial Coliseum. “The primary problem with the coliseum is that it’s functionally obsolete,” he said. “Think about it: Compare the old Ernie Shore Field with the new BB&T Ballpark. Fans’ anticipation and what they expect from public facilities is different than it was 24 years ago…. Fans expect bigger, nicer, better amenities. That is the challenge Wake Forest [University] has, and that is the challenge they’re going to have to pay for. As mentioned earlier, it’s functionally obsolete because 25 miles east of here is a coliseum twice its size. It gets all the big concerts and all the big sporting events.”
Dials in the appraisal business
As a practical matter in the tax administrations’ consideration of 157,000 properties in the county, determining economic/functional obsolescence has virtually nothing to do with critical assessment and everything to do with balancing the books. “There’s only a few —’I call them ‘dials’ — there’s only a few mechanism that we have available to us,” Burgiss told members of the board of equalization last month. “I can’t change the square footage of your home and get your home to be in the right value, according to the market. So one of those dials is depreciation. That’s made up of two components, which is physical depreciation and economic and functional —’which we combine. And so all that process is, is bringing those —’land value plus replacement cost-new less depreciation — into alignment with where the sales values [are] in that market.” There are many roads leading to the final property tax assessments, but almost all of them cross through the place that real estate professionals and assessors invoke in almost mystical terms as “the market” — that place where, in a perfect world, a piece of property enters in one end properly priced and comes out the other sold, following negotiations, for a number that bears up a critical nugget of data from which to gauge the temperature of the market. “The market is king,” Burgiss has said to many critical citizens who have questioned the process. All other pieces of random and sloppy data need not apply. “The market” does the heavy lifting for the real estate division in Burgiss’ shop, providing the John Paul Jones baseline over which they can play their Jimmy Page guitar on the more subjective parts of the property tax assessment process. The market may be king, but in 2008 it left the building. The collapse of the market created, to quote Burgiss, “an environment that is difficult to appraise in.” With the exception of an isolated error in the tax neighborhood Anderleigh, which many local residents know as Konnoak Hills, the tax administration did not use foreclosure sales in its comp lists. But the fingerprints of foreclosures are all over the deep reductions in property values that swept across the eastern flank of Winston-Salem. “In all the research I’ve done I’ve gone through and seen the impact that foreclosures and after-foreclosures have had on these properties,” Davis said. “It’s clear in my mind that this is the pressure of foreclosures, not normal market activity.”
Margin of error
The area the tax administration considers Cameron Park, which residents simply call East Winston, is a neighborhood of gently rolling hills and spectacular front-porch views of downtown. The housing stock ranges from large brick homes with dormers and 1960s-era aluminum awnings to small frame houses built with rental income in mind. Right on the edge of Business 40 and squarely in the path of the ever-expanding Winston-Salem State University, the neighborhood is also prime territory for gentrification certain to be instigated by the completion of Inmar’s new corporate headquarters and the growing Wake Forest Innovation Quarter. Dozens of properties in the neighborhood have been swept into foreclosure over the past four years, with the remaining 10 qualified sales bearing the scars of the economic downturn as landlords and investors — known in the trade as “flippers” — bought properties at rock-bottom prices. Equity Trust Co., an Ohio-based financial institution that acts as a custodian for real estate investment retirement accounts, snapped up two properties previously valued in the $40,000s for $8,000 and $10,000 in 2012. While the markdowns in value were deeper —’and sales ratios commensurately higher — than the norm for the neighborhood, the critical factor preventing the transactions from being coded as foreclosures and duly excluded was that Equity Trust Co. is not technically a lending institution. Staff at the Forsyth County Tax Administration acknowledged that they erred by disqualifying a sale between Weidl Properties and William Clayton and his wife, Dakota, for a property on East 1st Street in November 2012. Appraisal Manager Michael Pollock said the sale was corrected in the tax administration’s data. As with the other errors, Pollock said the wrongly excluded sale did not have a material effect on neighborhood revaluation values. An analysis using the median sales ratio method of adjusting for market activity, which is espoused by the tax administration, indicates otherwise. The comp list excluding Clayton’s purchase created a median sales ratio that resulted in a 54.3-percent loss of value across the neighborhood. Including the Weidl-Clayton sale, at the relatively healthy price of $34,000 — as should have been done — changes the adjustment to 47.1 percent.’The error accounts for a difference of 7.2 percent. Although most appraisers aim for perfection, 5 percent is widely accepted as a margin of error by assessors. “If it was any more than 10 percent I think they would definitely need to go back and change it,” said Fred Pearson, whose company assisted with the 2012 Guilford County revaluation and was called in to audit the 2011 Mecklenburg County revaluation. Staff at Forsyth County Tax Administration indicated no inclination to make blanket changes to correct valuations across the neighborhood in response to the improperly excluded sale. “We’re shooting inside of 5 percent,” Burgiss said. “I don’t get as excited about a 6 percent as a 10 percent.” Burgiss had been more eager to correct errors when he addressed the board of equalization in early May. “If it’s wrong, then let us know,” he said. “And if we can understand and verify what you’re saying, we’ll adjust it. If that happens and there’s enough errors in an area, of course that could change the values derived from analyzing the market if you change the sales that you use. So we understand that. We’re open to that. We know that if you change enough of those sales, then you change your answer.”
A handful of errantly qualified sales does alone account for the deep devaluations that cut a swath of distress through east-side neighborhoods when notices went out in February. Nowhere was the shock felt more acutely than in Monticello Park, a quiet, suburban neighborhood off of Carver School Road, that had long been home to some of the most prominent members of the African-American community, including Winston-Salem Mayor Pro Tem Vivian Burke; the late Judge Roland Hayes; Jim Shaw, a community advocate and retired businessman; and Ed Hanes Sr., a retired high school principal whose son is a state lawmaker. Values in properties across the neighborhood took 70-percent dive, with properties falling on average from $160,000 to $45,000. Pearson said homeowners in the neighborhood should not have been the only ones taken aback by the massive hemorrhaging of values. “That would stand out for me,” he said. The tax administration disclosed to the board of equalization that there were only three sales on the comp list used to set values in Monticello Park. They were all technically legitimate, but the special circumstances of each sale raises questions about whether the transactions were below market value. Then, too, with a sample so small, where is the assurance that anomalous transactions will wash out in the mix? In one sale, a woman represented by a power of attorney sold a brick ranch house under a generous tree canopy that had previously been valued at $114,300 to a couple for $32,900 in September 2011. The seven heirs of William Nelson Knight sold a handsome, split-level ranch house previously valued at $184,000 to a Carrboro couple for $82,000. And in November 2012, an investor from Maine picked up a house for $27,000 in a second estate sale. The property had previously been appraised at $120,000. Property owners in neighborhoods across the east side, including Monticello Park, Dreamland Park, Castleshire, Slater Park and Shalimar/Salem Village, acting on their own initiative restored more than $1 million in aggregate value to their communities through individual appeals. (The board of equalization continues to accept appeals through June 28.) What would have been a 46.6-percent devaluation among the properties became a 14.9-percent drop.
One property on North Cameron Avenue owned by Larry J. Brown caught the attention Richard N. Davis, the chairman of the board of equalization. Previously valued at $102,600, the tax administration had assessed it at $29,500. Brown appealed, asking the county to restore it to its previous value. An assessor from tax administration went out to look at the property came back with a recommendation to go even higher — to $130,400. “For a drop that drastic, that’s a signal that this deserves a closer look,” Davis said. “And I’ve gone through a whole lot of these neighborhoods and I’ve seen the same thing. I’ve compared the 2009 value to the 2013 value, and it’s dramatically different. And I said to myself: ‘There’s something underlying this property valuation.’ And this is a prime example of what I’m talking about. And so when we see a dramatic drop from four years ago to now, I think that deserves a closer look because there’s something there that was not apparent with the sales. “No matter what the sales in that neighborhood were, that was a drastic drop,” Davis added. “And a little light bulb should come on to say, ‘We need to look at this closely to find out what’s going on.’” Appraiser Beth Stowe explained that the tax administrations reassessment of the property resulted from the discovery that the house had larger dimensions than originally thought. “The house was completely renovated,” she marveled. “It was just amazing. It had the granite. The new windows. It had new crown molding.” Stowe used the levers at her disposal as an assessor to adjust the value. She said she boosted the property’s grade from a B 5 to a B 15, reduced the physical depreciation from 51 percent to 15 percent and marked down economic/functional obsolescence from 80 percent to 40 percent. In actual dollars, changes to depreciation and economic/functional means that rather than deducting a total of $181,731 from the replacement cost value of $201,476, the county will only deduct a total of $102,752. Vice Chair David Shaw asked about similarly drastic changes following appeal to two additional properties with similar attributes. As it so happened, the owner of both of the properties, which are located in Monticello Park, is Mayor Pro Tem Vivian Burke. The inquiry prompted Real Estate Division Manager John Potter to report to the board that staff is considering bringing a recommendation for blanket changes in Monticello Park. “We didn’t have a lot of sales,” he said, “but the longer we looked, we felt that the newer, larger homes were under-assessed.” Potter added that staff wants to revisit the grades and economic/functional obsolescence values on the properties. The dial, it turns out, can go both ways.
This is Part 1 in a two-part series undertaken as a collaboration between YES! Weekly and Camel City Dispatch on the 2013 tax revaluation in Forsyth County. Part 2 will be published next week exclusively in Camel City Dispatch at camelcitydispatch.com. The deadline to file formal appeals to property revaluations is June 28. Appeals can be physically delivered or dropped off at the tax office on the first floor of the Forsyth County Government Center, located at 201 N. Chestnut St. in Winston-Salem. Edited by Brian Clarey. Reporting contributed by Alex Ashe.
The 2013 Forsyth County tax revaluation, neighborhood by neighborhood
Anderleigh (Konnoak Hills)
Cameron Park (East Winston)
Green Park/Carlton Bluff (Easton)